These Safety Rules have been produced in order to comply with the duties under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and all subsequent Regulations. The rules define the procedures and working practices which must be followed onsite. Please ensure that these are passed to your Production Manager and/ or Health and Safety Advisor. Campus West asks that a copy of this document is signed by the relevant person in your organisation and returned to us.
No Visiting Company will be permitted to start works without the authority of the appropriate signed and dated acceptance of these safety rules, which must be arranged with the General Manager prior to work commencing.
Specific areas of interest:
- Fire and evacuation procedures
- Medical emergencies
- Accidents and dangerous occurrences
- Fire and safety site rules
- Equipment storage and disposal
- Use of effects onstage
- Risk assessments
- Personal Protective equipment
List of current legislation applicable to the work presented or produced at Campus West.
Appendix 1 – Campus West Safe Systems of Work
- Fire and evacuation procedures
Fire is a major hazard in the Campus West building. The fire hazard is controlled with an automated fire alarm system and comprehensive management procedures.
What to do in case you discover a fire:
- Break the fire break glass (these are the small red boxes by exit doors)
- Report to the Duty Technician who will liaise with the Duty Manager as to the location and extent of the fire
- During a show the Duty Technician will manage the evacuation of the auditorium and stage areas
- Evacuate the building following the ‘Running Man’ green signs which lead to the final exit door
- Report to the Assembly Point in the Campus West car park
- The Visiting Company Manager must check the number of staff/performers are safely clear of the building and report to the Duty
Technician paying particular attention to ensure toilets and shower rooms are clear.
Notes for evacuation
- Do not use lifts
- Blind or partially sighted persons should be made aware of their exit route and/or be escorted.
Should a company member discover a suspicious object or receive any sort of threat report to the Duty Technician immediately.
2. Medical emergencies
For all medical emergencies contact the Duty Technician who will get an on-site First Aider. Telephone the emergency services yourself (999) in the event of a serious medical emergency.
There is a First Aid Box on stage.
An accident form must be completed for all incidents and forms are available from the Duty Technician.
3. Accidents and dangerous occurrences
All accidents at Campus West (no matter how slight), which result in personal injury to visiting company employees, must be reported to Campus West Management.
Any incidents of concern, or any near miss which did not result in an accident, must also be reported. This is to enable investigations to take place to ensure no repeat of the incident, and to prevent future accidents.
Any accident or dangerous occurrence reportable under RIDDOR (the Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations), will be reported to the enforcing authority by Campus West Management.
4. Fire and safety site rules
Fire Fighting Equipment
Fire fighting equipment shall be kept readily accessible. Neither equipment, nor signs indicating their positions, should be removed or obscured without the express written permission of Campus West Management.
Fire fighting equipment is not to be used for any other purpose other than fighting fires.
Must be kept clear and accessible at all times.
Flammable and highly flammable substances
All flammable and highly flammable substances must be stored, handled and used in accordance with the current legislation. If such substances are kept and/or used on site then suitable signage must be placed in the area concerned. In particular the no smoking rule must be observed.
Campus West has an automatic fire alarm system with various detection devices and firebreak glass points around the building.
Explosives, or cartridge operated fixing tools, must not be used, not brought to the site, without the express prior, written permission of Campus West Management.
Whether or not the gas is flammable, cylinders must be kept away from sources of heat and any means of escape. Full and empty cylinders not in use must be kept in a safe well-vented storage area designated by the Production and Technical Manager.
When handling cylinders, care must be taken not to damage valves. Only cylinders required for operating an appliance must be brought in to a building or enclosed space. In the case of liquefied petroleum gas cylinders must not be greater than 15kg.
Unlike mains gas, liquefied petroleum gases (butane and propane) are heavier than air and may accumulate at low level.
5. Equipment storage and disposal
Equipment used must be compatible with the list held by the local authority, be suitably constructed for the particular effect required and have an indication of electrical safety, if appropriate.
Explosives must not be delivered or returned by post.
It is our policy not to store explosives, except for use on current shows: arrangements will be made for the supplier to collect any unused explosives.
Explosives for use on a current show will be stored in their original packaging bearing the correct legend ‘Explosive material – No naked flame’. A suitable fire extinguisher must be nearby.
If it should happen that theatrical explosives cannot be returned to certain suppliers, the effects shall be detonated following the correct procedures or soaked thoroughly in water and disposed of via a foul drainage system.
Dry ice will be kept in a suitable thermal container in a well-ventilated area.
Smoke fluids and pressurised gas bottles will be stored according to the Theatres COSHH code.
Firearms must be approved by the Production and Technical Manager, and approved for use by the local licensing authority. They must be kept in a locked container in a secured room before and after use, and risk management procedures must be in place and approved before use.
6. Use of effects on stage
Advance warning of all special effects to be used, including smoking onstage, must be communicated in advance to the Production and Technical Manager, so that suitable risk management procedures can be in place and the appropriate local authority or fire authority permissions can be sought.
See appendix to this document on Safe Systems of Work in place for various special effects.
Campus West operates a ‘NO SMOKING’ policy which includes vaping. This policy is in the interests of all occupiers and your active co-operation in maintaining a ‘NO SMOKING’ building would be greatly appreciated.
8. Risk assessments
Before undertaking work at Campus West, visiting companies must:
- Carry out a risk assessment to establish any special precautions necessary to ensure the safety of their own employees and others.
- Establish a safe system of work.
To help meet this requirement Campus West has in place general risk assessments and safe systems of work (see Appendix 1). These however will not cover all hazards to be found in your particular show, as each show is unique, and risk assessments particular to your show or working practices may be required.
Risk assessments are also required under other more specific legislation e.g. COSHH (the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health). Please seek the advice of the Production and Technical Manager should you require any further information or advice.
In the event of a visiting company member committing any unsafe act or working in unsafe conditions they shall be liable. Any company member found to commit an unsafe act may be asked to leave the theatre by a representative of Campus West Management.
9. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
The visiting company must recognise that all employees must be provided with the appropriate personal protective equipment and hygiene wear for the job/task being carried out.
Portable electric tools, hair dryers, curlers, etc. shall be double insulated. They must be fully certified and tested.
When carrying out work at Campus West all visiting companies must comply with all current health and safety and safe legislation, directives, and approved codes of practice, including:
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
The Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990
Control of Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010
Confined Spaces Regulations 1997
Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007
Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989
Health and Safety (consultation with employees) Regulations 1996
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 and 2004 Amendment
Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002
Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations 1994
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
Employers Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1696 and Regulations 1998
The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981
Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2005
Health and Safety (Information for Employees) regulations 1989
Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999
Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
Noise at Work Regulations 2005
Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995
Safety Representatives and Safety Committee Regulations 1977
Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1980
Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 2008
Vibration at Work Regulations 2005
Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
Work at Height Regulations 2005
Working Time Regulations 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2007
Nothing contained within this document relieves the visiting company of their obligations to comply with any statutory legislation or duties under common law and no permission or consent by or on behalf of Campus West or its agents under these safety rules and requirements shall in any way relieve the visiting company of their liability for accidents, injury and/or damage under the Contract.
These precautions are additional to any for which the company may be responsible by statute.
These conditions may be varied or added to at any time by Campus West.
Campus West accept no responsibility for any direct or indirect losses caused by the enforced delay or suspension of works imposed as a result of non-compliance with the Site Safety Regulations.
Campus West Safe Systems of Work
Work on the Stage
MEWP – Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (Genie)
Special effects – Fire and Pyrotechnics
Special effects - Firearms and weapons
Special effects – smoke and vapour effects
Safe System of Work – Work on the Stage
All these points apply to ALL Campus West and visiting company staff.
Please ensure that all work is carried out in accordance with the Manufacturers guidelines.
Whilst unloading/loading wagons you must:
- Wear safety boots/shoes.
- Always be aware of people walking past the dock door and give them the right of way.
- On large pieces of scenery/equipment have one or two dedicated people watching for people and traffic.
- At night ensure adequate lighting is provided.
Calling in or out flying bars
- Only the Designated Person for the task should ask for bar to be moved. Inform the fly person who this will be.
- Ensure that the bar is completely clear to fly before calling a bar in or out.
- Watch the bar in or out until the move is completed. DO NOT walk away after calling a bar.
- If the bar has lighting fixtures on it, then ensure that all the fixtures hook clamps are adequately tightened, safety bonds attached to bars, and colour frame clips clipped down.
- If the bar has speakers on it, then ensure that all adequately tightened, and safety bonds attached to bars.
- If the bar has a piece of scenery on it, then ensure that all fixings are secure and safe
Whilst working in the basket of the Genie or at height on ladders you must:
- Ensure that EVERY tool is attached safely to your person via a lanyard.
- Ensure that the people at the bottom of the Genie and ladders wear hard hats AT ALL times.
- Ensure that you have a dedicated crew member working on the ground clearing any objects that may impede your progress moving access equipment across the stage.
- If working on a ladder you must always have at least one member of staff or the visiting company at the foot of the ladder.
Personal Protective Equipment
- The PPE box is located in the Technical Workshop, the equipment is there for anyone to use.
Loading / unloading trailers
- The visiting company must ensure that a competent person is appointed to supervise the unloading and loading of the vans and trailer(s).
- ALL crew will be competent, well rested at the beginning of the shift, and sober.
- ALL crew will follow Campus West requirements for Personal Protective Equipment and will wear protective footwear throughout any loading or unloading.
- Sufficient breaks must be scheduled. If in doubt please consult with Campus West Management.
- Sufficient crew must be provided. If loading/unloading is deemed unsafe as a result of insufficient crew, Campus West reserves the right to delay any unsafe activity until such time as additional crew can be deployed.
- The visiting company will have ensured the truck is safely packed, with no dangerously balanced items at risk of falling and injuring any member of any crew.
- Ideally a plan of the truck, showing the distribution of items within the truck, will be provided in advance (or at least be carried by the supervising member of staff unloading the truck).
- The visiting company will have ensured that boxes, skips and flight cases are safely packed to avoid any unbalanced loads. Weight should be indicated on each item.
- Campus West will provide lighting should there not be suitable internal lighting on the truck.
- Any and all accidents MUST be reported immediately to a member of Campus West crew who will ensure that the relevant persons are informed immediately
- Accidents and Near Misses MUST be reported to Campus West Production and Technical Manager and to the visiting company’s Production Manager / Company Manager
Safe use of ladders
- Ladders should be in good condition and examined regularly for defects
- They should be secured so they cannot slip, usually by tying them at the top
- Access ladders should extend about 1m above the working platform. This provides a handhold for people getting on and off
- Avoid overreaching, if you are working from a ladder, make sure it is long enough and positioned to reach the work safely
- No ladders should be used if there is the possibility of contact with overhead electric wires or unprotected electrical equipment
- Do not climb or work off a ladder unless you can hold onto it
Safe use of stepladders
- Stepladders should be in good condition and examined regularly for defects
- The stepladder should be examined before use
- The stepladder must be used fully open with locking devices in place
- The stepladder must be on firm level ground
- Avoid overreaching
- Avoid side-on work
- Do not use the top platform of a stepladder unless it is designed with special hand-holds.
Safe System of Work – MEWP: Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (Genie)
- The person using the MEWP must either be qualified to do so and be able to show a current certificate or pass for the appropriate type of MEWP.
- At Campus West all technical staff have the authority to limit or curtail any activities, be that by visiting company or venue staff, that they deem unsafe. At no point should any member of Campus West staff put themselves or others at risk.
- The MEWP must be visually inspected before use, and taken out of service if faulty.
- The MEWP must be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Lone working at height is not permitted.
- At least one person other than the operator will be available at all times who knows the emergency descent procedure for the MEWP.
- Movement of any self-propelled MEWP onstage must be guided at ground level for the safety of anyone working in the vicinity, or in the vicinity of any scenic pieces.
- All tools used by the technician in the cage must be fixed by a lanyard.
- Where possible, no persons will be present at or around the base of the MEWP.
- Appropriate PPE must be worm at all times
- Noise levels should be kept to a minimum to allow safe communication when working at height.
Safe System of Work - Special Effects - Fire and Pyrotechnics
- Only competent persons must be nominated to carry out any fire or pyrotechnic special effect, and trained if competency requires this. There must be enough time and the necessary means to enable them to carry out their duties safely.
- Fire and pyrotechnic effects must be rehearsed thoroughly, both for performers and for stage management and the production team.
- Fire damping equipment to be readily available and on standby at all time, both during rehearsal and during show
- There must be a comprehensive management procedure outlined for every fire and pyrotechnic effect, and risk assessments must be submitted to Campus West
- Clear lines of sight must be maintained at all times between the operator(s) and the effect. If there is no clear line of sight the pyrotechnic must not be triggered
- The operator or performer carrying out any effect must be clearly advised of the risks and any procedures as identified by the risk assessment
- Any person from another employer (i.e. visiting crew) who is in charge of the effect must be clearly advised of the fire evacuation procedure of the theatre
- Training must be provided where necessary, and certainly whenever crew changes or changes to the special effect happen
- All pyrotechnics must be stored in their original packaging, stock should be kept to a minimum on site, and any remaining at the end of the production must be disposed of responsibly
Safe System of Work - Special Effects - Firearms and Weapons
Productions at Campus West may at times use firearms which fire blank rounds. While these firearms do not contain the charge and risk of full ammunition, they have the potential to cause injury. This may be from the exhaust expelled from the firearm when fired, the release of the blank if in close proximity, and the physical action of the firearm (i.e. movement of the hammer or slider). There is also the hazard presented by the noise of the shot(s).
Those handling or using blank firing firearms should be aware of the hazards involved, be instructed in their safe use, and only use and handle them as instructed.
Ensuring the security of firearms and weapons is essential, both during the show, and at all other times they are in the building. Theft is of particular concern.
Each production that uses firearms or other weapons will need a production specific risk assessment, prepared or authorised by the Visiting Company.
- The production specific risk assessment must be approved by the Production and Technical Manager
- Any firearm must be locked up in the company’s safe or appropriate toolbox, which itself should not be portable or should be locked in a secure office at all times the firearm is not required
- There must be a clear procedure of handling the firearm, with nominated show staff being the only ones permitted to hand the firearm to, and receive back from, the nominated performer(s)
- Use of the firearm or weapons onstage should be rehearsed thoroughly, and all staff in the proximity (onstage and offstage) to be considered and accounted for in the production risk assessment
Blades and other weapons:
- There must be a similar procedure in place for all blades and other weapons with potential to cause harm.
- The production specific risk assessment must be approved by the Production and Technical Manager.
- Any blades or other weapons should be stored securely at all times the production is in the building.
Safe system of work - Special effects – smoke and vapour effects
When dry ice, solid carbon dioxide (CO2), is immersed in hot water or steam, the cold gas that comes off causes the water vapour in the air to condense, creating a water mist. The effect is a heavy 'mist' that lies on the stage. A similar effect can be created using liquid nitrogen.
Mists are produced by passing compressed air through a reservoir of highly refined mineral oil. Glycol or mineral oil smoke 'Smoke guns' all work on the same principles although their size, precise method of operation and the chemical used do vary. The basic principle is that a mineral oil or glycol based substance is heated, atomising the substance. This is then forced out of the machine under pressure.
Pyrotechnics are for flash or smoke effects and give off a range of by products which are harmful. The storage and use of pyrotechnics is specialised and may be subject to specific legislation concerning explosives.
Smoke and vapour effects can give rise to a variety of hazards depending on the substances used. Manufacturers and suppliers must provide information about the hazards which may arise from their products.
The following general hazards may need to be considered:
- Freeze burns or frostbite caused by skin contact with liquid nitrogen or blocks of dry ice
- Skin irritation from mineral oils or glycols
- Asphyxiation due to high concentrations of carbon dioxide or nitrogen gases
- The presence of toxic substances in the smoke or vapour
- Smoke or vapour may obscure visibility and so increase the possibility of slips, trips or falls
- Slips due to spilt oil
Work with smoke effects will be subject to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 (COSHH) ifadverse health effects are possible. Any person operating such effects should be provided with appropriate information and training.
If there is any doubt about the level of exposure that may result from using a particular effect, on-site monitoring should be used.
Smoke effects should be under the control of people competent in that activity. Good planning and regular maintenance is essential in the safe use of these effects. The risk assessment should be discussed with the person in charge of the production. People involved in the production should be warned in advance that smoke effects are to be used.
Where possible a full rehearsal should be carried out to ensure that no unforeseen risks have emerged, e.g. problems due to reduced visibility.
Correct usage of these smoke and vapour effects should allow you to limit the number of people exposed. It should be possible to prevent exposure to the audience and certain members of the production team if care is taken to minimise the amount of smoke used, and to control and direct the smoke.
Since CO2 is heavier than air, particular attention should be paid to low-lying areas, basements, orchestra pits and under-stage areas. It may be necessary to arrange for a competent person to monitor the CO2and oxygen levels in these areas if they are to be occupied by any person.
If monitoring has indicated potentially high levels of exposure, the following precautions should be taken to control and minimise exposure.
- Always use the minimum amount of smoke required
- Ventilate areas well immediately after use
- Minimise the exposure time of those concerned
- Keep people away from areas in front of all machines since concentrations are at their highest here
PPE should only ever be used as a last resort when it is not possible to reduce the risk by other means. It may occasionally be necessary to use Respiratory Protective Equipment for the machine operators. If this is the case respirators may be sufficient for oil or glycol effects, but full breathing apparatus may be required for CO2. Those using dry ice or liquid nitrogen should always wear well insulated impervious gloves to protect against freeze burns. The use of tongs should be considered. Goggles or visors should be worn to prevent eye injuries.
As productions have no control over the composition of their audiences special care needs to be taken to minimise risks to the audience. Exposure to the effects should ideally be avoided altogether. The person in charge of the production should know if smoke is likely to reach the audience. If this is the case the following precautions should be considered:
- Limit the amount of smoke/vapour to the minimum necessary for the desired effect
- Direct and control smoke effects to the desired place to prevent overspill into
- audience areas
- Printed warnings on or with the tickets
- Warning notices on the premises (reinforced by verbal warnings before the
- performance if this is considered necessary)
All warnings should indicate the type of persons who may be particularly at risk.
Safe system of work - COSHH Policy
- No hazardous material or substance should be introduced or used unless there is a Safety Data Sheet on record for its use.
- Copies of the manufacturers’ Safety Data Sheets will be kept locally in each COSHH cabinet in each theatre
- Materials include cleaning chemicals and agents, paints, dyes, smoke and haze fluids, gases, welding materials, fibre glass, glues, cleaning products, etc.
- All information must be made available to staff using and handling hazardous substances, and information must be kept up to date.
- Exposure will be prevented or adequately controlled.
- Materials must be stored in correct containers and in proper storage containers/areas/cupboards. The storage container must be labelled by hazard type - e.g. corrosive, flammable and harmful and warnings must be posted. By law no more than 40 litres of any one chemical can be stored on site.
- Chemicals and empty containers must be disposed of through an appropriate chemical disposal company in such a manner as not to endanger public health or the environment.
- No member of staff should carry out any work which is liable to expose themselves or anyone else to a substance hazardous to health, unless a suitable and sufficient assessment has been made of the risks to health created by the work and the necessary measures to control exposure.
Safe System of Work – Wardrobe
The work of the Wardrobe department has its own set of hazards, please ensure the following safe system of work is followed to ensure the safety of both Campus West and visiting company staff.
- Do not use equipment which appears faulty. Although all electrical equipment is inspected regularly, please report any faults or damage immediately to any member of the technical team
- Do not leave irons or steamers unattended. Please turn them off when leaving the work area.
- Take regular breaks from repetitive tasks such as ironing, and ensure you do not maintain a single position for long periods of time. Rotate the tasks you perform to reduce your risk of injury and maintain good posture
- Advise the Production and Technical Manager immediately of any existing or change to any medical condition, particularly when considering the use of solvents, detergents, hairsprays and other volatile agents that may cause skin or respiratory complaints
- Do not use chairs or anything unstable to reach from upper shelves, ask a member of the technical team to assist with a ladder if required
- Practice good manual handling and do not carry heavy or awkward loads; ensure you have enough people to assist, split the load into more manageable portions, and make sure you can clearly see the route ahead of you when carrying loads between rooms and on staircases
- Be mindful of heavy loads when loading and unloading washing machines and dryers
- Report any injury immediately to the Duty Technician